CooltownThe goal of the Cooltown project was to provide infrastructure for nomadic computing, a term the project used for human-oriented mobile and ubiquitous computing. 'Nomadic' refers to humans moving between places such as home, work and shops as they go about their everyday lives. 'Computing' refers here to services provided to those nomadic users — not just services such as email that can be provided anywhere there is connectivity, but more particularly services integrated with entities in the everyday physical world through which the users move. To access those services, humans are assumed to carry or wear wirelessly connected and sensor-equipped devices such as phones, PDAs or smart watches. More specifically, the project's aim was to apply lessons learned from the success of the Web to nomadic computing, via two objectives. First, since the web provides a rich and extensible set of resources in the virtual world, much can potentially be gained by extending the web's architecture and the Web's existing resources to the physical world. One objective for the Cooltown design was expressed in the maxim 'everything has a web page': each entity in our physical world, whether electronic or not, is to have an associated web resource called a web presence, which the user is to be able to access conveniently when in the presence of that entity. A web presence could simply be a web page containing information about the entity; but it could be any service provided in association with the entity. For example, the web presence of a physical product could be a service for obtaining replacement parts. The second objective was to achieve the web's high degree of interoperability for interactions with devices. Nomadic users may need to interact in places they have never visited before, with web presences they have never encountered before. It would not be acceptable for the user to have to load new software or reconfigure existing software on their portable devices in order to benefit from those services. The project developed the eSquirt protocol to provide high interoperability. While it was principally myself and John Barton who wrote about Cooltown, we were part of a team and much of the credit for the original ideas in the project belongs to Jeff Morgan.
Core Cooltown publications
- People, Places, Things: Web Presence for the Real World, Tim Kindberg, John Barton, Jeff Morgan, Gene Becker, Ilja Bedner, Debbie Caswell, Phillipe Debaty, Gita Gopal, Marcos Frid, Venky Krishnan, Howard Morris, Celine Pering, John Schettino, Bill Serra, and M. Spasojevic. In proceedings WMCSA2000. In MONET Vol. 7, No. 5 (October 2002).
- A Web-Based Nomadic Computing System. Tim Kindberg & John Barton. In Computer Networks, Elsevier, vol 35, no. 4, March 2001, pp. 443-456.
- Physical Registration: Configuring Electronic Directories using Handheld Devices, John Barton, Tim Kindberg and Shreyas Sadalgi. IEEE Wireless Communications magazine, Feb. 2002, pp. 30-38. HPL Tech. Report HPL-2001-119.
- The challenges and opportunities of integrating the physical world and networked systems (John Barton & Tim Kindberg) (also available as HP Labs TR HPL-2001-18).
Applications and human factors of CooltownThe first two papers describe work on a project with the Exploratorium in San Francisco.
- Rememberer: A Tool for Capturing Museum Visits Margaret Fleck, Marcos Frid, Tim Kindberg, Eamonn O'Brian-Strain, Rakhi Rajani, Mirjana Spasojevic. In UbiComp 2002, 29 September - 1 October 2002, Goteborg, Sweden.
- From Informing to Remembering: Deploying a Ubiquitous System in an Interactive Science Museum. Margaret Fleck, Marcos Frid, Tim Kindberg, Mirjana Spasojevic, Eamonn O'Brian-Strain, Rakhi Rajani. IEEE Pervasive Computing, April-June 2002.
- The cooltown User Experience (John Barton & Tim Kindberg), a position paper presented at the CHI2001 Workshop on Building the Ubiquitous Computing User Experience.
Other ubicomp papers
- Sensor-enhanced Mobile Web Clients: an XForms Approach, John Barton, Tim Kindberg, Hui Dai, Nissanka B. Priyantha and Fahd Al-bin-ali. In the proceedings of The Twelfth International World Wide Web Conference. HP Technical report HPL-2003-52.
- System Software for Ubiquitous Computing, Tim Kindberg and Armando Fox. IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 1, no. 1, Jan-Mar 2002, pp. 70-81. Copyright ï¿½ 2002 IEEE.